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Backflow Prevented located just prior to the contaminant source, or located at each fixture which might allow a contaminant to enter the potable water system.

 Backflow Prevented located at points where public water supply and private water supply are connected. This “Second Line of Defence” ensures that the public water quality is not compromised if the first line of defence is tampered with, altered, or is not adequately serviced.

 This is a combined cooperative effort between plumbing and health officials, waterworks companies, property owners, and certified testers to establish and administer guidelines for controlling cross connections and implementing means to ensure their enforcement so that the public potable water supply will be protected both in the city main and within buildings. The elements of a program define the type of protection required and responsibility for the administration and enforcement. Other elements ensure continuing education programs.

 Arrangement of piping which allows a potable water

supply to become connected to a line

which contains a contaminant.

First Line of Defence Containment Cross Connection Control Program Cross Connection

 Reversal of normal flow direction due to a negative pressure in the supply piping.

Once a back flow prevented is installed a system becomes closed. After this point as the temperature rises, the water will expand. Without proper room for expansion there is an increased risk of damage to the plumbing system.

Leaking TCP valve or other relief valves, leaking pipes, blown joints, ruptured boilers, ruptured hot water heaters, serious burns, water damage, mold, mildew, water hammer, and many more

symptoms may result.

Potential Results Back Siphonge

 Reversal of normal flow direction due to an increase in downstream pressure.


Back pressure Backflow Thermal Expansion